“The preferred Muslim colour, green, associated with the vegetation rites, was the favoured colour of the Great Goddess. The standard (liwa) of the early Muslim armies was green in colour, and sometimes triangular in shape (Hughes, 1977, p. 607), again suggesting the female. As white became the colour of the Omayyids, and black of the Abbasids, so green became the colour of the Fatimids, the descendants of the Prophet. (Pp. 47-48)”
The pagan Arabian antecedents of the moon cult called Submission are obvious. Submission does not mean submit to 'God', it means submit to the Al-Lah moon idol and Muhammad who was its, or his, or her, representative on earth. The historical attributes and realities of moon worship in Arabia pre-date Muhammad by five thousand years.
Historian Benjamin Walker outlines the pagan realities of the Allah worship and how Allah became linked with the key Arab rituals, fetishes, stone worshipping and ritualizations which were so important to a pastoral, poor, illiterate and superstitious society. Some examples are listed below. [Emphasis is mine]
“Like other peoples of the ancient world, the Arabs worshiped natural objects like the heavenly bodies, stones, trees and wells. The Sabians were star-worshippers, the people of Himyar worshipped the sun, the tribes of Asad and Kinana the moon. The Kaaba is thought to have been dedicated to the Great Goddess, or to a lunar deity… The three goddesses Allat, Ozza and Manat presided over the moon, the planet Venus and Sirius (the Dog Star) besides other celestial bodies. The Koran refers to Allah as Lord of ‘Sirius.’ (53:50). [p. 46]
The Moon deity:
“Another symbol of the Great Goddess was the full lunar orb, and the moon-goddess was one of the deities to whom the Kaaba was dedicated. In fact the mystical association of things lunar with important events in Arab or Islamic annals has been remarked on by more than one writer, as if the moon were guiding the destinies of the Arab people. For example, the most critical battle in Muhammad’s career occurred at a place called Badr, which means ‘full moon’ (Frieling, 1978, p. 48)… Muhammad forbade the use of any metal but silver, the moon metal, for signet rings. Pigeons, like doves, are the birds of the Great Goddess. They abound in the Kaaba, and no one may kill them there or in any other part of the sacred city.”
Al-ilah was one moon deity idol out of 360 celestial idols in the Meccan Kabaa shrine which made a lot of money from pious pagan worshippers and travellers. When Muhammad took the city at the head of a 10.000 man army in 630 AD, he destroyed every single idol excepting that of his family and tribe's Al-ilah idol. Thus the popular goddesses of Allat, Ozza and Manat were effaced replaced by the Al-ilah moon idol, which may have been both feminine and masculine. Only Allah would be worshipped in the Kabaa:
“The Kaaba was first erected to provide a suitable sanctuary for the Black Stone, which is believed to have been a token of the Great Goddess. The name ‘Kaaba’ itself, traditionally said to be derived from a word for ‘cube’, is more accurately traced back to the ancient word kaab, meaning ‘virgin’, cognate with the Old Semitic root QBA meaning female pudenda. Even today the border surrounding the Black Stone is shaped like a vulva, while the shrine itself is set in an ovoid space. John of Damascus (d. 749), who lived in the capital of the Arab empire, connected the word ‘Kaaba’ with Kubar, or the Star of Aphrodite.”
Muhammed made Al-Lah the supreme idol and it became the only 'divine essence' to be worshipped in the Kabaa or feminine place of holy pagan worship. The center piece of the Kabaa was the black asteroid, denoting a heavenly force of holy purity and uniqueness. Allah becomes conflated with the ritualization and prostration to this black rock. Muhammad took the idea of stone worship and linked it back to Abraham and Ishmael and to the Jewish ideal of monotheism, now embedded in the Allah idol. Pagan Arabs for millennia had worshipped at the Kabaa without any inkling or inclination to connect the Mesopotamian Jew to their stone worshipping. Under Muhammad the 'holy act' of kissing the Black stone was equated with Allah worship.
“The patron deities of many pagan tribes were associated with stones. The Arab reverence for the Black Stone was a form of litholatria or stone worship, a kind of fetishism found in all parts of the world, in which stones of strange shape, size or colour were regarded as sacred. Such stones were touched, stroked or kissed by the worshipper, who thereby acquitted some of a stone’s holiness by contagion.
The Nabatean god Dhu Shara and the sun-god Elogabal of Emesa (now Homs, Syria), on the Orontes, both had the form of a black stone. (The Emesa stone was smashed by the Muslims when they took the town in AD 636, lest it be equated with their own, and the leading Christians living there were exiled).”
Al-Lah is usually regarded as the masculine moon deity paired with the feminine Sun. Many historians do dispute this and range Allah amongst the feminine celestial objects of veneration. In the Koran the Sun is referred to [in Sura 91 for example] as masculine and the moon as feminine. Thus it is not clear if the Sun mutated over time to become an inferior masculine deity paired with a superior feminine moon idol, or if the Koran and the Arabs used both masculine and feminine forms [androgyny] to describe their main celestial deities.
“It is interesting to find, as a curiosity of symbolism, how far the esoteric concept of the Feminine pervaded Arab life and belief. As in many other religions of the Ancient Middle East, there was a strong feminine bias in the early religion of Arabia. ... Female deities like Allat, Ozza and Manat predominated in importance over male. Even the sun-deity Shams was treated as female by some Arab tribes. The moon… though often ruled by a god, was regarded as the feminine orb par excellence.
The historical development of Islam is premised upon millenia of pagan Arab practices. This is useful as a starting point in analyzing the Muhammadan cult. Anyone who believes that the Allah-thing suddenly and magically appeared to Muhammad in 'revelations' is absolutely deluded. Islam is pagan and the historicity of its development makes that obvious.