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Western Civilisation

Until the advent of materialism and 19th c. dogma, Western Civilisation was  superior to anything Islam had developed.  Islam has not aided in the development of the modern world; in fact civilisation has only been created in spite of Islam.  Proof of this resides in the 'modern' world and the unending political-economic and spiritual poverty of Muslim states and regions.  Squatting on richer civilisations is not 'progress'.  Islam is pagan, totalitarian, and irrational.   

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El Cid and the great victory at Valencia against the Musulman Jihad

June 15 1094.

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Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar "El Cid": The name El Cid is Moorish, it means ...

Today in history, on June 15, 1094, one of the most remarkable feats in the long war between Islam and Christianity took place: the great kingdom of Valencia, which had been under Muslim control for more than 350 years, capitulated to the warlord Roderick Díaz of Vivar — better known to posterity as “the Cid” (from the Arabic honorific al-sayyid, “the lord”).

In the late eleventh century, the Almoravids, a North African group committed to jihadist teaching, began to pour into Spain from Africa to aid their Spanish counterparts, the Moors, against the Reconquista—the centuries-long Christian attempt to liberate Spain from Islam.  The Cid’s premiere modern biographer, Professor Ramón Menéndez Pidal (d. 1968), summarizes the mood and stakes as follows:

With the Almoravid invasion, the struggle between the two civilizations had reached its height… [W]ith the invasion of the desert races and the recrudescence of Islamic fanaticism, a new chasm opened out between the two. And, on the Christian side, it was the Cid who, as the leader of the resistance against the victorious invaders, showed himself the most determined to carry on the war without giving or seeking quarter. … [I]t was upon the Cid that the task devolved of resisting, unaided, the whole might of Islam.

Toward the end of the year 1093, a secret plot between the Almoravids and the Moors of Valencia, which had only recently become tributary to the Cid, resulted in the overthrow of its king, Yahya al-Qadir, who had “increased their [Valencians] hatred by being a friend to the Christians” — that is, by being a vassal to the Cid. During the uprising, fanatical Muslims discovered al-Qadir trying to abscond out of Valencia dressed in and concealed by a woman’s burqa. To cries of “Allahu akbar,” the mob slaughtered him as an apostate and hurled his body into a camel dung pit.

On learning of the Valencians’ treachery and murder of his vassal, the Cid’s “anger was kindled, and his soul was inflamed,” writes the Muslim chronicler al-Maqqari. Like a fierce storm, he came and with extreme violence thrashed the Valencian countryside, taking all the castles and suburbs up to the city’s very walls. He “fought so fiercely,” writes Ibn al-Qama, who was present in Valencia, “that the Moors were terrified at the havoc he played among them.”

Months passed, and mass starvation soon plagued the besieged Moorish kingdom, but the Muslims continued to hold out on the conviction that their Almoravid allies would eventually come to their rescue. At long last, an immense host of Almoravids was espied marching to Valencia’s relief.

Acting fast, the Cid, who was camped outside the walls of Valencia, destroyed all of the bridges leading to the city and flooded the countryside with water from the canals, so that only one strip of land, which he now controlled, was dry. Done none too soon, a massive dust storm heralded the arrival of the Islamic hordes of North Africa.

[Now] when the news came that the Africans had arrived at Alcira, the Valencians, frantic with joy, rushed to the walls to scan the horizon for signs of their saviors and watch by night the twinkle of the numberless fires of the Almoravid bivouacs… And all the time the citizens prayed unceasingly for Allah’s aid against the Cid and agreed in council to plunder the Christian camp and the stores and hostels of the suburb when the battle reached the wall.

When morning came, the Cid and the Valencians awoke to a strange sight: empty fields. The jihadist saviors of Valencia had retreated in the dark over the flooded plains, abandoning the city to its fate.  A contemporary chronicle allots two sentences to this ignominious event: a large “army of Moabites [Almoravids], swiftly on its way to relieve the siege, approached Valencia. But they did not dare to commit themselves to battle with Roderick. Greatly fearful of him they dispersed by night and retired to their bases in confusion.”

Black despair now fell on the Moors of Valencia: “they were like drunkards who understand not one another,” wrote Ibn al-Qama; “they became as one that falls into the sea.” Their mood was not helped by the Cid’s army. Completely unopposed, it now surrounded the city’s walls and loudly reviled the oath-breaking Muslims with vows of unrestrained vengeance. Topping it all off, the famine had reached the point that “the poor were driven to eating the flesh of human corpses.” With no hope, Valencia finally surrendered to the Cid — “may the curse of Allah fall on his head!” to quote al-Maqqari — on today’s date, June 15, 1094, after a nearly nineteen-month-long besiegement, and Roderick Díaz of Vivar became its undisputed lord — literally, its sayyad, Cid.

Although there is much more to say about the Cid’s exploits against the jihad, it is perhaps his conquest of Valencia that, when closely examined, truly underscores his remarkable nature. As Roderick’s modern biographer, Pidal, explains:

It savors of madness that a single man, unsupported by any national organization and lacking resources even for a single day, should appear before [the walls of] Valencia determined upon restoring a rule that had been overthrown this second time by an enemy [the Almoravids] who had proved irresistible to the strongest power in Spain [Emperor Alfonso VI]: that he should dream of doing what the Christian Emperor had failed to do, and in the teeth of the Moslem Emir’s opposition [and succeed is] … the most extraordinary achievement ever performed in Spain by anyone but a king.

This article was abstracted from Raymond Ibrahim’s Defenders of the West: The Christian Heroes Who Stood Against Islam (Chapter 2 of which is dedicated to the Cid).

Catholics created the idea of International law

The Age of Discoveries were also an age of introspection and criticism.

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Bartolome de las Casas with indians of America Pictures | Getty Images

 

When the ‘New World’ was discovered by Columbus, conflict between an advanced civilisation and a pagan, primitive culture was guaranteed.  Millions of Ameri-Indians over 4 centuries were killed by Whites, through war, enslavement, and mostly disease.  Some 10 million are thought to have perished in about 400 years.  The fiction that the Ameri-Indians were peace-loving environmentalists developing an advanced stone-base civilisation is now accepted within education and the anti-White, anti-Western paper mills called ‘journals’ and ‘academic writings’.  It is ridiculous. 

 

In any given year during the 15th century the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru would sacrifice 150.000 humans to their pagan nature gods, including celestial worship (Venus, the Moon, the Sun), and fertility cults.  This entails over 1 million people per decade were murdered to spill their blood to appease the fantasy-spirits of the natural and celestial world, and to guarantee rain, harvests, victories in war, or the continued aggrandizement of the pagan priestly elite.  Over a century there could have been more than 5-10 million murdered by the Aztecs and Incas. 

 

This atavistic savagery does not include those who were killed during the endless wars between tribes and states; nor those who died in slavery.  The Mayan and other ‘civilisations’ were famously destroyed through eco-devastation as trees were cut down to produce lime and whitewash for the grand temples and pyramids.  The collapse of the eco-system ensured the self-immolation of the Mayan empire in the 10th century.

 

When the Spanish began the subjugation of the Ameri-Indians, we can see that as early as 1511 in sermons and letters by de Montesinos in Haiti and others, laments on the brutal treatment of the natives.  Spanish policy was condemned for its barbaric attitude towards the natives, its violence, enslavement and disregard of property rights and natural law rights of the native people.  Out of Christian conscience was born international law.  There is no evidence that native Ameri-Indians spent any time reflecting on such rights and ideals.  Their culture was perfectly at ease with the barbarism of human sacrifice and slavery. 

 

Through these efforts the Spanish Church produced the Laws of Burgos (1512) and of Valladolid (1513) which governed how Spanish officials were to interact with the ‘natives’.  These legal codes were premised on natural law and property law and rights.  De Vitoria and other jurists used St. Thomas Acquinas’ system of natural law rights to argue that the native Ameri-Indians had a God-given right to their land, their bodies and their families.  De Vitoria argued that ‘just war’ did not exist because some Ameri-Indians rejected the gospel or that they lacked ‘reason’ or civilisation.  Their inherent natural law rights negated those arguments. 

 

Las Casas shared Vitoria’s position on native natural law rights, and that the natives should be dealt with kindly, with patience and that the Spanish abandon the Aristotelian-Greek-Roman concept of slavery as being part of the natural order.  God given natural law rights made slavery an illegal and immoral practice.  By 1550 many Spanish theologians had developed a code of international law and concepts designed to protect the rights of any people or group including the Ameri-Indians.  International law would build on these foundations and find detailed expression in the 17th century through Christians such as Grotius and many others.

 

The main point is that during the 16th century Christian Spaniards viewed their civilisation’s activities in the ‘new world’ and found many of them to be without merit, wanting and un-Christian.  Ideas on reform, changes to legal texts and codes and binding instruments of agreement and principles, issued by the Spanish state as well as the Vatican were pursued and created.  No other culture or civilisation has ever done this namely analysed itself, its actions and their outcomes and decided that a great change was mandatory. 

 

The 'Renaissance' was just a continuation of the Medieval

No great cleavage exists, in some areas there is a retrogression, not improvement.

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The ‘Renaissance’ period as a clear cleavage and dividing line from the medieval does not exist.  The ‘Renaissance’ is simply a continuation of the ‘Medieval’, the names themselves meaning little and entirely contrived.  Is 1453 and the end of the ‘100 years’ war’ a ‘Medieval’ or a ‘Renaissance’ event.  No one in 1453 called the era either of these concocted and specious names.  1453 was part of the same era, culture and history as 1353, 1253 or 853.  Henry VI who lost the English possessions in France would never have understood why his era was the beginning of a ‘Renaissance’ as it was embroiled in a quite medieval civil war. 

 

These arbitrarily divided categories are quite obviously part of the same process of development, cojoined in a millennium of history and culture.  If the ‘Middle Ages’, did not exist, there is no ‘Renaissance’ or rebirth, the new birthing of something which is never defined, except for the usual hoary myth of a return to ‘Roman splendour’, a military empire, founded upon white slavery, which was outside of public works, technologically primitive, a society where 1/3 were slaves and most of the rest poor and illiterate.  ‘Classical civilisation’ has much to condemn it.

 

The ’Renaissance’ usually starts at the time of the Musulman destruction of Constantinople in 1453.  Years before this cataclysmic debacle and the erasure of the Christian capital of the Christian Eastern empire, a migration of the educated, the elite, the merchant class and those with means and money from Constantinople to the West and especially Italy, the birthplace of the ‘Renaissance’, had occurred.  The ‘rebirth’ of the ill defined ‘classicism’ was the product of a Christian wave moving East to West, bringing with them the money, technology, treasures and libraries of Eastern Christendom.  If this migration of Christians and their knowledge and money had not occurred, the ‘Renaissance’ would not have existed. 

 

It was not a ‘rebirth’ from the immaterial, pace the Western ‘histories’, nor a recrudescence from darkness into light.  It was a showering of Christian Byzantine education and influence into Italy, itself richer and more prosperous from trade and eras of internal peace, protected from the Musulman Jihad by the fast-ebbing empire of Byzantium and the Christianised Balkans which fought against the Ottoman hordes, preventing a complete seizure of central Europe.  Petrarch the ignorant knew little about what prompted an increase in learning or sophisticated ‘intellectual’ pursuits, many of those then as now, as sterile and useless and any sophistry in the days of Plato.  It was ironically Christian civilisation which produced the ‘Renaissance’.

 

We see this in the art and architecture of the ‘Renaissance’ which carried on the same themes as that of the Medieval period, finding an apogee in the Catholic Baroque, itself the most quintessentially religious art ever produced.  Giotto, Cimbabue and countless others in the 14th century anticipate Renaissance art and set the foundation for the development of techniques and paintings in the 15th.  There was little that was new in the 15th or 16th centuries regarding art or architecture.

 

Secularism as a 16th century trend was self-evident in every country and region long before 1450, with the ‘reformers’ of the 14th century and many of their followers quite secular, material and often irreligious.  The Church itself and its hierarchy of dignitaries were criticised during many centuries for their materialism, pomp, corruption and secular attitudes, ruling as Barons in some cases, controlling armies and engaging in political and military disputes.  All of this led to ‘reforming’ tendencies and outbreaks.

 

In science there is a retrogression in the 16th century.  Copernican theory has still not been mechanically proven (which shocks the bien pensant but is entirely true) and was a philosophical not a scientifically premised theory.  Many other theories explain natural and celestial phenomena.  Alchemy, astrology, a belief in witches all witnessed fantastic growth during this period.  Even during the ‘scientific revolution’ of the 17th century, Galileo’s achievements were premised on centuries of work by others dating back to the 13th century, as were Newton’s, structured on medieval Scholastic experimentation. 

 

Kenneth Clark the atheist art historian remarked in his ‘Civilisation’ about the 16th century:

“Guercino spent much of his mornings in prayer, Bernini frequently went on retreats…Rubens went to Mass every day…Saint Ignatius Loyola the visionary soldier turned psychologist…(a Catholic culture) for a half century that could produce these great spirits.”

 

During the 16th century Popes Julius II and Leo X invested enormous sums into art and architecture, often taxing Catholics into outrage and rebellion to fund the endeavours.  Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael and scores of others have left the world richer and more civilised for it.  Some of the greatest works of human conception emanated from the deeply religious of the 16th century and their patrons.  The printing press was created in 1450, along with dozens of sundry other inventions.  Dissemination of writing, ideas, treatises and broadsheets is a decidedly medieval invention, taking generations to find expression in the technology and automation of Gutenberg. 

 

The myth that the ‘Renaissance’ was a rebirth of something is utter bunk.  This era was the continuation of the Medieval, impelled by the fleeing Christians of Byzantium and the capital of medieval Italy created through trade and commerce. 

 

The greatest art and architecture in world history - the Gothic cathedral

Sans pareil. An illuminating, rational, and brillaint age in many ways.

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Gothic Style: What Ideas Transformed Architecture?

 

 

What is left of the decaying corpulent carcass of Western Civilisation, owes its art and architecture to the Catholic Church, along with its greatest music (classical).  Churches, minsters, Cathedrals, paintings, sculpture, mosaics, stained glass, illuminated manuscripts and building facades, provided inspiration, admiration and imitation across the centuries.  The created world and Catholic themes were the most important innovative factor in art and architecture in world history. 

 

The Catholic Church’s official opposition to iconoclasm or the destruction of any image which was related to Christ and God cannot be overemphasised.  By rejecting this Eastern heresy the beautiful pietas of Michaelangelo and many others were sculpted, the Madonnas of Raphael chiselled, the wonderful elegiacal facades carved, and the endless arrays of technically advanced paintings were developed. 

 

This stupendously powerful and evocative view of representational religious art is unique in the world.  The Muhammadan cult does not allow any religious artwork.  The Byzantines spent almost 200 years mired in the iconoclastic controversy where all depictions of Christ or religious themes was forbidden.  Protesters aka Protestants attacked, burned and defiled priceless religious works of art, smashing statues, altarpieces, stained-glass windows and priceless treasures.  This was called a ‘Reformation’. 

 

The greatest Catholic innovation in art and architecture, surpassing the public works of Rome, was the Cathedral, called Gothic by the 18th century self-proclaimed ‘Enlighteners’.  Gothic was utilised as a pejorative, associating the majestic genius of Cathedral building to the Germanic and uncivilised Goth tribes.  This association was determined by men wearing wigs who could not build a home garden.  These Cathedrals are simply the greatest works of art in history.

 

The ’Gothic’ style grew out of the Romanesque architecture of the 10th and 11th centuries.  Originating in France, Romanesque churches were much larger than the existing smaller wooden and stone churches and minsters found in Northern Europe.  The Gothic style, which commenced in the 12th century, built on the Romanesque, greatly increasing the width and height, employing flying buttresses, the pointed arch, and the ribbed vault, along with stained glass windows to let in the light and illuminate the realm of God on Earth and to enlighten the minds of men and remove the pagan past and the evil of nature worship.  These were and are, engineering masterpieces.  It is unlikely we have the skills today to build a Gothic cathedral from the beginning, without the aid of CAD or digital programs.

 

Salisbury Cathedral, Built in The Style of Early English Gothic ...

 

(Salisbury Cathedral)

 

Each Cathedral was mathematical in its planning.  There is an impressive geometric coherence to the Gothic style based on Saint Augustine and his reference to Wisdom 11:21, where God has ordered all things by measure, number and weight.  This ancient Catholic belief informed the construction of these gigantic edifices.  God and his creation were in part linked by mathematics – a belief held by the ancient Greeks and in particular Pythagoras. 

 

The geometric proportionality of these constructions is simply remarkable.  Salisbury Cathedral in England, with one of the tallest spires in the world, is an example.  This Cathedral’s central crossing is 39 feet by 39 feet.  The central crossing is where the transept intersects the east-west axis.  This primary dimension becomes the basis for the rest of the Cathedral’s construction.  Both the length and the width of each of the nave’s ten bays is 19 feet six inches – or half the length of the central crossing.  The nave itself consists of 20 identical spaces measuring 19 feet six inches square, and another 10 spaces measuring 19 feet six inches by 39 feet.  It is geometrically exact.

 

Salisbury Cathedral, Built in The Style of Early English Gothic ...

(inside Salisbury Cathedral) 

 

Everything about these buildings reveals a supernatural inspiration.  The upward reach of the spire, the massive columns and stone, the light pouring into the nave, the grand entrance into a holy place, the brilliance and colour of the sanctuary, the decorations, the embossing of gold, the ceremony and pageantry of a mass; all of this and much more overawes the human with the greatness of the divine.  Far from being a ‘dark age’, this was an age of rationalism leading to engineering brilliance, an age of belief developing the underlying cultural fabric of Western civilisation, including its laws and mores.

 

Geert Wilders and a faint ray of hope in Holland

Will the new government be allowed to succeed and roll back the Jihad?

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Could the Dutch lead a restoration of Europe?  'Far Right' is an appellation given by the brain dead and ignorant.  Anything that is not dystopian, fascist or communal is now 'far right'.  

(source)

After six months of negotiations that seemed foredoomed to failure, The Netherlands will have a new government that will attempt to do something novel and strange in Europe (and North America): it’s going to put its own people first. In a development that has implications far beyond the Netherlands, populist politician Geert Wilders, whose party became the country’s largest in last November’s elections, has reached an agreement with three other parties on the right to form a new government. Wilders won’t be prime minister, but his tough anti-mass migration agenda will be implemented. Or at least that’s the plan.

Breitbart reported Thursday that the Netherlands “will finally get the right wing government its people voted for, and some of the toughest border control in the Western World.” Wilders himself was ebullient, saying: “The sun will shine again in the Netherlands… The Netherlands will be ours again.” Will Wilders manage to Make the Netherlands Great Again? That is certainly the goal of the provisional agreement he and his coalition partners have hammered out.

The agreement, which is entitled “Hope, Courage, and Pride,” stipulates that Wilders will not be prime minister, despite being the leader of the country’s largest party. This was a concession that was necessary in order to form a coalition at all, and it could mean that the whole thing could go down in flames.

But maybe not: in theory, the prime minister won’t be an ideologue opposed to the coalition’s program but someone who understands that his or her job is to implement that program. “It appears,” says Breitbart, that “the ministry positions and Prime Ministership will be held by ‘technocrats’ — non-politicians and typically academics and economists — who would implement the government programme as dictated by the four.”

Could this work? Could it actually result in an effective government? It has about as much chance of doing so as a hereditary monarchy or the rule of the majority, both of which have produced some great governments and some disastrous ones, so it’s worth a try.

Meanwhile, the agreement is audacious in scope, aiming at doing nothing less than reversing the Netherlands’ slow and steady Islamization; if successful, this could transform the entire trajectory of Europe as a whole. The agreement states that “concrete steps are being taken towards the strictest admission regime for asylum and the most comprehensive package to control migration ever. The entire asylum and migration system is being reformed.”

Read the rest here.

Jesuits as scientists. The enormous impact the Church had on mechanical science.

No Church, no science. As simple as that.

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Jesuits as science missionaries for the Catholic Church

 

Ignatius Loyola started the Society of Jesus in the early 16th century.  Their dedication to science was an early principle and activity.  The list of their accomplishments is impressive and without equal across any civilisation or religious group.  A partial recitation of Jesuit scientific accomplishment includes:

 

Development and discovery of pendulum clocks; pantographs, barometers, reflecting telescopes, microscopes, magnetism, optics, electricity, astronomy, solar physics, physics in general, Jupiter surface observations, the Andromeda nebulae, Saturn’s rings, lunar effect on tides, moon containing the same material as the Earth, geomagnetism, meteorology, seismology, blood circulation (independent of Harvey), theoretical models to support flight, wave-like nature of light, star maps of the southern hemisphere, symbolic logic, flood controls, plus and minus signs for mathematics, to name a few.

 

It is well known that the single most important collective contributor to experimental physics in the 17th century (the ‘Scientific Revolution’) was the Society of Jesus.  Optics, maths, astronomy and many other areas so important to modern life were utterly dominated by Jesuits for centuries.  Massive encyclopaedias were written, recording their data and allowing the spread of scientific research across Europe.  The Jesuits were the main drivers of scientific collaboration.  Charles Bossut in the early 19th century composed a list of history’s most eminent mathematicians.  Out of the 303 listed, 16 were Jesuits or 5%, even though Jesuits had only existed for 2.5 centuries. 

 

The Jesuits introduced Western science into China, Japan and India.  In these geographies the Jesuits presented a wide array of mathematical and mechanical tools to better understand physical reality and the universe, including Euclidean geometry which made planetary movements somewhere understandable.  Enormous effort was made to translate the dynamism of Western science into local languages and to teach and offer support for learning to local populations.

 

Important Jesuit scientists include:  Father Riccioli, the first person to determine the rate of acceleration of a falling body (early 17th century), and created an enormous encyclopaedia on astronomy (1640); Father Kirchner who built the foremost astronomical departure from Aristotle in history (1651); Fathers Grimaldi and Francesco (17th century) observations and detailed experiments of pendulums, and Grimaldi and Riccioli’s accurate moon scape depictions; Father Grimaldi’s discovery of light refraction; Father Roger Boscovich who was a polymath accomplished in atomic theory, optics, maths, and astronomy who discovered sunspots, the transit of mercury, differing effects of gravity on different places on Earth amongst many other achievements; and Father Cassini who confirmed elliptical orbits (17th century).  This is just a small list of some prominent Jesuits in Science. 

 

Few know much if anything about the above facts.  The Catholic Church put more money and investment into science, than any other institution in history.  Without this funding and support modern science would not have developed.  The Jesuits played a vital role in all of this. 

UK: A Muslim Globalist is elected for the 3rd time as Mayor of London - with 17% of the vote.

In Muslim debased enclaves, the Mayors and councils are now dominated by Musulmans.

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Sadiq Khan makes historic border crossing from India to Pakistan on ...

 

A committed Muslim Jihadist who has never worked in the real world and is a committed Globalist has won the Mayorship in London for a record 3rd straight time.  The 2 cults – Muhammadanism and Globalism – are certainly not mutually exclusive.  They are indeed complementary.  One based on the Koran believes in a world-wide caliphate with each nation, including the UK being subordinated to the Musulman Umma.  The second, Globalism, is a technocratic fascism, evinced through the Corona scamdemic which seeks the destruction of White Western civilisation and its Christian heritage, subsumed by a global technocratic fascism.  For this cult, the Muhammadan ethos of church and state being unified into one governance structure, is simply an opportunity and complementarity.

 

Sad Sadiq Khan as Mayor of London has been an utter failure but when only 40% of the population vote, it does not take much to win.  In fact just 17% of the total vote was enough to win:

 

Population of Greater London:  8.8 million

  Voting age population:  6.5 million

Total number of Votes:  2.75 million

% of voters who voted: 40%

Number who voted for Khan:  1.1 million

   % of votes for Khan:  44%

% of votes for Khan as a % of those who can vote:  17%

 

This is not a ‘democracy’.  40% of the population felt compelled to vote.  60% did not care or thought there was no choice.  The ‘Conservative’ or rather ‘Convict’ candidate, the party of the Corona Fascism and Lockdowns is hardly an alternative to a Globalist-Muslim Jihadi.  When you look at London’s demographics on the ground, anyone who lives there knows that 30-35% of the population is Muslim.  Most of these voters will vote and only vote for a Muslim panhandler or a waste vessel such as Jihadi George Galloway.  Another 30% in any metro-area is hard-core socialist, Globalist-EUist and will never vote for any person of any colour who does not follow the narratives.  About 1/3 remain who are not brain dead and may do the right thing and vote for the preservation of religion, culture, heritage and reality.  But this 1/3 rump is a minority and greatly demonised.

 

The UK has Muslim mayors in:  Birmingham (2nd largest city), Leeds, Blackburn, Sheffield, Oxford, Luton, Rochdale, and Oldham.  Unsurprisingly these centres have large minority or slight majority Musulman populations.  There are nearly 2000 mosques in the UK and 56 areas of Sharia barbarism.  In the real world, and not the world of a faux census which hides the Muslimification of the UK, the UK probably has a population including illegals, of 75 million, with 20% of that total being followers of mad Muhammad, or 15 million.  Greater London with a population of 9 million is in many places (Tower Hamlets, Hounslow), majority or near majority Muslim and probably contains circa 3 million Muslims based on the mosque density and capacity in the city.  By 2040, the 15 million Muslims in the UK will have doubled to 30 million or 40% of the population.  By 2060 Muslims will be a majority in the UK.  If 2060 is 'too early' it won't be much past 2080 when Muslims will be the majority.  

 

Tell me again that this is not cultural and civilisational suicide.  Tell me again, it is not planned and intended.  Destroy the nation state, destroy the indigenous White-Christian culture and replace it with a compliant Musulman Umma, which will be guided into a global fascism and technocracy. 

 

Nazism and Islam. Two brother ideologies.

Fast allies during World War II, which only proves that Islam is peace and love.

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Palestinian solidarity protests held around the world - Ya Libnan

 

When Muslims in Gaza chant Death to Israel and glory in their Jihad's attacks against the Israeli state, they are echoing a very old theme which dates back 80 years.  Hamas, the Muslim Brotherhood and most Muslim Jihad groups have links to both the Nazis and Soviets.  

 

Allied reluctance to contradict Nazi propaganda also points to Axis success. Fearful of alienating Middle Easterners, the Allies stayed humiliatingly silent about the genocide taking place against the Jews; failed to refute allegations about Jews dominating London, Washington, and Moscow; did not dispute the distorted Koranic interpretations; and shied away from endorsing Zionism. Merely to dispute Nazi accusations, the Allies worried, would only confirm Nazi claims about Britain, America, and Russia being stooges of Jewish power. An internal U.S. directive in late 1942 acknowledged that "the subject of Zionist aspirations cannot be mentioned, in as much as … [this] would jeopardize our strategy in the Eastern Mediterranean." 

Sound familiar ? The mindless beat of defeatist apathy or the too-clever-by-half technocratic Orwellianism.

 
Nazism and Islam[ism] share many characteristics as reported in many places on this site [see here for example]. Both are universal cults which ignore reality and which subdue the individual into a communal. Morality, ethics, grace and tolerance are entirely cult and tribal based. Those who are on the 'outside' of the cult are evil. Those within the cult are pre-ordained for both worldly and other-wordly triumph and success. Quaint notions about democracy, free-will, the golden rule, respect, responsibility, individuality, and rationality, simply do not exist in either Nazism or Islam [ism]. Both are worlds of pagan-fascism. Both were allies in World War II. What a surprise.


review from an excellent book outlining the Nazi influence on post 1945 Moslem development in the Middle East is below. Mein Kampf is still an Arab-Moslem best-seller and the Nazis are fondly remembered by many Moslems as exemplars of what needs to be done to the Jews.[emphasis, bold etc. mine]

 
Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World by Jeffrey Herf focuses on an earlier time, the 1930s-40s, and the major effort by Hitler and his minions to transmit their ideas to the Middle East. After reading Küntzel and Herf, I realize that my education about the modern Middle East was lacking a vital ingredient, the Nazi one.

  

A specialist in modern German history at the University of Maryland, Herf brings a new corpus of information to light: summary accounts of Nazi shortwave radio broadcasts in the Arabic language that were generated over three years by the U.S. embassy in Cairo. This cache reveals fully, for the first time, what Berlin told the Arabs (and to a lesser extent, the Iranians). As page after page of Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World establishes in mind-numbing but necessary detail, the Germans above all pursued two themes: stopping Zionism and promoting Islamism. Each deserves close consideration.

  

Nazi propaganda in Arabic portrayed World War II, history's largest and most destructive war, as focused primarily on the sliver of land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. This interpretation both flattered Arabs and extended Hitler's grand theory that Jews wanted to take over the Arab countries and eventually the whole world, that the Allied powers were but pawns in this Zionist conspiracy, and that Germany was leading the resistance to them.

 

Palestine was the key, according to these broadcasts. If Zionists took it over, they would "control the three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. Thus they will be able to rule the whole world and spread Jewish capitalism." Such an eventuality would lead to Arabs oppressed and Islam defunct. "Should Bolshevism and Democracy be victorious," announced Nazi radio, "the Arabs will be dominated forever and all traces of Islam will be wiped out." To avoid this fate, Arabs had to join with the Axis.

 

 As the war progressed, Berlin's incitement became ever more furious. "You must kill the Jews before they open fire on you. Kill the Jews" went a July 1942 broadcast. Herf notes the bitter irony: "At this moment of complete Jewish powerlessness, the Arabic broadcasts from Berlin skillfully adapted the general Nazi propaganda line about Jewish domination of the anti-Hitler coalition to a radical Arab and Islamic view."

 

At the same time, the Nazi regime developed an approach to Muslims that largely ignored the Protocols of the Elders of ZionMein Kampf, and other European sources in favor of selected passages from the Koran.

 

Hitler's propagandists assured Muslims, first, that Axis countries "respect the Koran, sanctify the mosques, and glorify the prophet of Islam." It cited the respectful work of German Orientalists as an important sign of goodwill. Second, it argued for what Heinrich Himmler called the "shared goals and shared ideals" of Islam and National Socialism. These included monotheism, piety, obedience, discipline, self-sacrifice, courage, honor, generosity, community, unity, anti-capitalism, and a celebration of labor and warfare.

  

In addition, Muslims were told that they and the Nazis were purportedly both fighting a "great struggle for freedom" against the British, the most important colonial power in the Middle East. The regime drew a parallel between Muhammad and Hitler and presented the umma as roughly analogous to its own notion of a totalitarian Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community").

 

Nazis portrayed Islam as an ally and, accordingly, called for its revival while urging Muslims to act piously and emulate Muhammad. Radio Berlin in Arabic went so far as to declare "Allahu akbar! Glory to the Arabs, Glory to Islam." The Germans held that Muslims who were not righteous enough (i.e., not following the Nazi ideological model) were causing the umma to languish: "Muslims, you are now backward because you have not shown God the proper piety and do not fear him." And not just backward, but also "invaded by merciless tyrants." Specifically for Shi'ites, the Nazis hinted at Hitler being the awaited Twelfth Imam or the Muslim eschatological figure of Jesus, who will fight the anti-Christ (namely, the Jews) and bring on the end of days.

 

The Nazis noted the parallel between sayings from the Koran (Sura 5:82, "You will meet no greater enemy of the believers than the Jews") and the words of Hitler ("By resisting the Jews everywhere, I am fighting for the Lord's work") and turned the Koran into an anti-Semitic tract whose primary purpose was to call for eternal hatred of Jews. They even falsely claimed that Muhammad ordered Muslims to fight the Jews "until they are extinct."

 

In the Nazi telling, Jewish-Muslim enmity dated back to the 7th century. "Since the days of Mohamed, the Jews have been hostile to Islam" went one broadcast. "Every Moslem knows that Jewish animosity to the Arabs dates back to the dawn of Islam" declared another. "Enmity has always existed between Arab and Jew since ancient times" insisted a third. The Nazis built on this premise to establish the basis for a Final Solution in the Middle East, instructing Arabs to "make every effort possible so that not a single Jew … remains in Arab countries."

 

Herf emphasizes the remarkable symbiosis of German and Middle Eastern elements: "As a result of their shared passions and interests, they produced texts and broadcasts that each group could not have produced on its own." Specifically, Arabs learned "the finer points of anti-Semitic conspiracy thinking," while Nazis learned the value of focusing on Palestine. He describes the coming together of Nazi and Islamic themes in Berlin as "one of the most important cultural exchanges of the twentieth century."

 

Having detailed Nazi propaganda in Arabic, Herf then traces its impact. He begins by documenting the great energy and expense devoted to these messages—the quality of the personnel devoted to it, their high-level Nazi patronage, the thousands of hours of radio transmissions, and the millions of pamphlets.

 

He then rounds up assessments of the Axis impact, all pointing to its success. Allied estimates from 1942, for example, found that "the people were saturated with Axis talk," that "upwards of three-fourths of the Moslem world are in favor of the Axis" and that "90% of the Egyptians, including their government, believe that the Jews are mainly responsible for shortages and high prices of essentials." A report from 1944 found that "practically all Arabs who have radios … listen to Berlin."

 

Allied reluctance to contradict Nazi propaganda also points to Axis success. Fearful of alienating Middle Easterners, the Allies stayed humiliatingly silent about the genocide taking place against the Jews; failed to refute allegations about Jews dominating London, Washington, and Moscow; did not dispute the distorted Koranic interpretations; and shied away from endorsing Zionism. Merely to dispute Nazi accusations, the Allies worried, would only confirm Nazi claims about Britain, America, and Russia being stooges of Jewish power. An internal U.S. directive in late 1942 acknowledged that "the subject of Zionist aspirations cannot be mentioned, in as much as … [this] would jeopardize our strategy in the Eastern Mediterranean."

 

Thus, when two leading U.S. senators, Robert Taft of Ohio and Robert Wagner of New York, proposed a resolution in 1944 endorsing a Jewish national home in Palestine, Berlin radio in Arabic called this an attempt "to erase Islamic civilization" and "to eradicate the Koran." Panicked, the entire weight of the Executive Branch came down on the senators, who felt compelled to withdraw their resolution. Clearly, Nazi offerings resonated deeply in the Middle East.

They continued to do well after the Nazi collapse and the war's conclusion. The defeat of Nazi General Erwin Rommel's aggressive push into North Africa meant that Nazi ambitions in the Middle East, in particular the Final Solution to annihilate its million or so Jews, were never implemented. But years of hate from radio and pamphlets and the repetitive, grotesque, ambitious, anti-Semitic, and Islam-based message detailed by Herf had taken root. Not only did the Middle East's Nazis emerge nearly invulnerable to prosecution, but they also prospered and were feted. An example: in 1946, Hasan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brethren, lavished praise on Hitler's favorite Arab, Haj Amin el-Husseini, calling him "a hero … a miracle of a man." Banna added for good measure: "Germany and Hitler are gone, but Amin el-Husseini will continue the struggle." Acknowledging el-Husseini's exalted status, a British officer in 1948 described him as "the one hero in the Arab world." 

Ideas the Nazis spread in the Middle East have had an enduring twofold legacy. First, as in Europe, they built on existing prejudices against Jews to transform that prejudice into something far more paranoid, aggressive, and murderous. One U.S. intelligence report from 1944 estimated that anti-Jewish materials constituted fully half of German propaganda directed to the Middle East. The Nazis saw virtually all developments in the region through the Jewish prism and exported this obsession. 

The fruits of this effort are seen not only in decades of furious Muslim anti-Zionism, personified by Arafat and Ahmadinejad, but also in the persecution of ancient Jewish communities in countries like Egypt and Iraq, which have now shriveled to near-extinction, plus the employment of Nazis such as Johann van Leers and Aloïs Brunner in important government positions. Thus did the Nazi legacy oppress Jewry in the Middle East post-1945.

 

Second, Islamism took on a Nazi quality. As someone who has criticized the term Islamofascism on the grounds that it gratuitously conflates two distinct phenomena, I have to report that Herf's evidence now leads me to acknowledge deep fascist influences on Islamism. This includes the Islamist hatred of democracy and liberalism and its contempt for multiple political parties, preference for unity over division, cult of youth and militarism, authoritarian moralism, cultural repression, and illiberal economics. 

 

Beyond specifics, that influence extends to what Herf calls an "ability to introduce a radical message in ways that resonated with, yet deepened and radicalized, already existing sentiments." Although a scholar of Europe by training, Herf's detective work in the U.S. archives has opened a new vista on the Arab-Israeli conflict and Islamism, as well as made a landmark contribution more broadly to an understanding of the modern Middle East.”

 

Islam and Nazism. It proves that Islam is peace, love, compassion and civilization......And when Muslims in Gaza attack Israel, through the Jihad proxy called Hamas or another Muslim Jihad group, make sure you side with the Muslims and not the 'Jews'.  Slaughtering all Jews and chanting Death to Israel denotes sophistication, intelligence and gravitas in the modern clown world we live in.

 

Muslim Jihad in Nigeria. Christocide. No mainstream-lamebrain fake news coverage.

Not even the Catholic Church seems to care.

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Must be the Easter Season, the Muslim Jihad proceeds at speed in Nigeria.

Twenty-five Christians were killed and more than 3,000 displaced during attacks by Fulani Islamist extremists on four communities in Nigeria’s Plateau State between April 12 and 19. Please pray for comfort for the bereaved, healing for the injured and that the needs of the displaced will be met.

 

 

 

 

These most recent attacks took place in Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA) and Mangu LGA

 

 More than 50 armed terrorists descended at night on the villages of Mandung-Mushu and Kopnanle in Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA) on April 12, targeting the unarmed residents as they slept. Twelve people were killed in the assault when the terrorists “set fire to homes and a place of worship, mercilessly gunning down fleeing civilians”, said barrister Farmasum Fuddang, chairman of Bokkos Cultural Development Council.

Another 12 Christians were killed on April 19 during an attack in Pushit, Mangu LGA. was killed when Fulani Islamists attacked Chikam community.

Many sustained injuries and are being treated in medical facilities in Mangu. Community leaders in the affected villages estimate that the total death toll may reach as high as 30.

Fulani Islamists have attacked the Christian community in Nigeria before. For example, they were responsible for the deaths of more than 295 Christians during a wave of attacks spanning December 23, Christmas Eve, and Christmas Day 2023, in Plateau State. They also carried out an attack at Easter 2024, when they killed ten Christians in the Middle Belt, including a pregnant woman and her unborn baby.

Hitler's Arab & Black Soldiers

Mark Felton

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The Priest as a Scientist. Only in Christianity does one find the religious leading science.

The foundations of science were laid by the Church.

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Roger Bacon (c.1214 - c.1292) | Issue 130 | Philosophy Now

 

Only in Christianity do we find distinct markers of piety and intelligent rationality, mixed together in a great pot-pourri of intellectual and emotional ferment.  The organisation and both immaterial and material concerns of monks and nuns is one such marker.  A second is the role of the priest as a scientist during the Middle Ages.  Few if any cultures can boast one, none can reference both.  We take it for granted in our modern world suffused in material wealth, much of it concentrated with the few, saturated as it is with debts both present and future; that everyone throughout history has had the time and leisure to become educated, explore and discover.  This is obviously a fiction.  ‘Learning’ and naturalist investigation was always the prerogative of the rich and idle. 

 

What is unique in the Western experience is the role of the scientist-priest.  Running a church and a parish is a full-time job.  It involves the spiritual and religious guidance of the laity, but also, the management of buildings, finances, people, and material affairs.  It is in effect, the equivalent of running a business.  Seen from this viewpoint there was not much time for idle-intellectual speculation or forays into complicated naturalist endeavours.  Yet throughout the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church produced a vast quantity of learned priests who transformed world history through intellectual, social, scientific, mathematical and mechanical innovation.

 

Sadly, much documentation pre-dating the 1200s has been destroyed through arson, war, pillage or natural decomposition.  Tonnes of Latin manuscripts also lie unread in various crypts and archives across Europe waiting for translation.  What we do know is that the 13th century was a cauldron of sophisticated education and inquiry, surely built on previous centuries of experimentation and effort.  Roger Bacon a Franciscan who taught at Oxford, was greatly admired for his work in maths and optics.  He developed a scientific method and emphasised the importance of experiment and observation.  He identified that long standing customs and popular opinions were too often, obstacles to truth.

 

Saint Albert the Great (d.1280), was a Dominican monk educated in Padua, who taught in Germany and at the University of Paris.  One of his students was St. Thomas Aquinas.  Besides teaching Saint Albert was the Bishop of Regensburg for 2 years and led the German Dominicans for many years.  Albert was justly famous for his naturalistic investigations, experimentation and applied mathematics.  As with Roger Bacon he developed a coherent method of investigation which focused on mechanical proofs.  Outputs from Saint Albert traversed the areas of physics, logic, metaphysics, biology, psychology, and natural science.  He refused to accept scientific ‘authority’ at face value, an attitude completely missing in our ‘modern world’.

 

Robert Grosseteste was another famed monk and chancellor of Oxford as well as a Bishop of Lincoln in England.  He was deeply influenced by the school at Chartres and by Thierry in particular.  He was probably the first priest-scientist to codify and write down his scientific experiments and the steps taken within each experiment.  These methods and approaches were passed on down and were duly copied by scientists in the 17th century.

 

There are dozens of similar priest-scientists that are of great importance but rarely mentioned in history books.  Father Nicholas Steno (d 1686) defined the science of geology, an area which is still suffused with problems and incorrect assumptions.  In particular he scientifically examined fossils, rocks and geological strata, overturning the existing myths and a priori conclusions through careful research and applied experimentation.  He was the first person we know of who believed that the Earth’s history could be known from its rocks.

 

The Jesuits as a religious order, until the advent of their subversion in the modern era were famous throughout the world for scientific, mathematical and astronomical observations.  Father Matthias Rici became, circa 1610, the de-facto Chancellor of China through his demonstration of Western science, astronomy, maths and geographical knowledge.  He was famous within China for teaching Chinese scholars not only scripture but advanced scientific ideas, including astronomical observations and calculations.  Many Chinese converted to Catholicism due to Rici’s piety, Christian virtues but also due to the scientific achievements that the Christianised West could display to the pagan East.

 

The priest as scientist, academic and innovator is a Christian only invention.  For 1000 years from the demise of Rome and its takeover by the German tribes, to 1600, the Catholic Church was at the vanguard of every important development in Western Europe.  From its moral salvation, to responsible citizenhood, to the rise of the welfare state including hospitals, poor relief, orphanages; to ending both White and Black slavery; to the creation of universities and the foundations of maths and science; to the grander of faith and life expressed in art, architecture literature, learning; to its centrality in industry, technology and agricultural revolutions; the priest as savant is what enabled and ennobled Western civilisation.

 

The Cathedral School at Chartres

A pivotal moment in the development of Western science and rationality

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¿Cuál es la CIUDAD MÁS BONITA de FRANCIA? - Forocoches

 

Developed during the 11th century, the Cathedral school of Chartres was a seminal innovation in Western civilisation and the development of real science (not the faux science of materialism, fraudulent data and metaphysics).  Inspired by the work of the polymath and scientist Pope Sylvester in the late 10th century, Chartres provided a foundation for scientific excellence during the 11th century under the leadership of Fulbert a former student of Sylvester.  During the 11th and 12th centuries this school at Chartres was at the forefront of naturalist and scientific inquiry.

 

Fulbert and other academics at Chartres were versatile and fluent in the areas of medicine, logic, mathematics, and astronomy.  Pagan concepts along with more modern Christian innovations suffused the school.  In the western façade at the Cathedral of Chartres one can still see today the liberal arts as taught in the 11th century, reflected in the statues of Aristotle, Boethius, Cicero, Euclid, Ptolemy, and Pythagoras.  This façade was created by Thierry of Chartres in the 1140s, to represent the influence, learning and education from the ancients and pagans.  There was no conflict between Christianity and science, either ancient or modern.

 

This school along with many others built during the 12th century, pursued the quadrivium as part of the seven core courses.  The quadrivium included arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy.  The patterns of God’s perfect creation and the natural laws of perfect harmony were investigated, pursued and contemplated.  The trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic, comprising the rest of the 7 core courses, made the expression of thoughts and conclusions from the study of these patterns, possible and intelligible.  Man was invited to understand and glory in God’s created cosmos.

 

One of the most important contributions by Chartres was its systematic appraisal of nature as an autonomous creation, operating to fixed natural laws.  Natural causations were to be utilised to explain how nature functioned.  Gone were the gods and spirits of rocks, planets and movements (Aristotle, pagan naturalism).  In their place scientific explanations had to be offered for the physics of nature, the movement of objects, the patterns of weather and seasons and the obvious design and cycles of life one could see in nature itself.  It was a gigantic movement away from the incorrect physics of the ancients and polytheists to a rational investigation of reality and nature.  This rational approach only appeared in Catholic Europe.

 

The famed scientist and philosopher Adelard of Bath (1080-1142) was a student at Chartres.  He commented that rationality is what makes us human.  The rational beauty of the universe pace Adelard demands an appreciation and understanding.  Knowledge was a gift from God.  William of Conches another student and scientist at Chartres agree emphasising that natural phenomena must be understand without recourse to the invocation of the supernatural.  This attitude is why Christianity built modern science and the pagans and naturalists failed in the same endeavour.

 

Thierry and his successors at Chartres thankfully dispensed with the pagan notion that celestial bodies were divine.  The Muslim Al-Lah for example, is historically an idol representing moon and celestial worship, common in the Near East reflected in the name Baal found in the Old Testament and associated with evil.  The schools at Chartres believed that the planets were formed of material substances, not semi-divine characteristics and that they served a purpose in the firmament that needed to be discovered.  Under Thierry and his successors, we can see the beginnings of true science and physics.

 

‘Averroists’, or those who followed the incorrect philosophy of Averroes the Muslim philosopher, were also dealt with by the Chartres school.  Averroes believed that Aristotle was correct in his belief that the Earth was eternal.  This contravenes common sense and the Bible, in which the Earth and the universe must have been created.  Saint Thomas Acquinas, basing his work in part on the output from Chartres reconciled Aristotle with Catholicism, providing in essence scientific and logical proofs in his synthesis to prove the existence of God and the created universe. 

 

After Acquinas’ death the Bishop of Paris issued the Condemnation of 1277, books and works that professors at the University of Paris were forbidden to teach.  The condemnations targeted erroneous Aristotelian beliefs.  Pierre Duhem the great historian of science believed that the Condemnations opened the path for real science to flourish.  It forced academics and thinkers to break out of the prison walls of Aristotelian belief and pursue new and fresh paths of discovery.  This energy and vitality led to the astronomy, physics and laws of inertia and motion developed in Paris and Chartres by Robert Grosseteste (13th century) and Jean Buridan (14th century), amongst many others. 

 

The age of naturalist science was born in the 11th century in Western Christendom.  This epochal achievement is seldom recognised or understood.

 

The Church and the rise of 'Science'

Only in Christendom was science built and sustained

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 Jean Buridan - Alchetron, The Free Social Encyclopedia

 

 

Exemplary physicist and science-historian Pierre Duhem traced the development of modern science and methods back to at least the 14th century.  The Church’s role in the creation of science and mathematics was fundamental and crucial.  Father Stanley Jaki, the prize-winning historian of science with doctorates in theology and physics, has analysed Duhem’s work and the history of Catholic science.  Duhem and Jaki both prove that the Church was the main actor in the creation of real science (not to be confused with the modern world’s non-science or Scientism).

 

Catholics believe, premised on the Old and New Testaments, that the universe is orderly and rational.  God, the great intelligence, created the universe, the world and natural phenomena, in a perfect harmony, full of beauty, wonder, and order.  This universe is endowed with lawfulness, reason and purpose.  In Wisdom 11:21 God instructs man that he has “ordered all things by measure, number, weight.”  Christians have always sought to undertake a quantitative process of discovery and to measure ‘all things’.

 

No other civilisation has ever believed in a rational, ordered and non-cyclical universe.  All other systems including the Greek and Roman were irrational, usually circular, mystical, with some (Hinduism, Buddhism) even denying that there is a reality or a world of the 5 senses.  The birth of science, indeed universities and school systems, is a byproduct of a Christian worldview in which a rational creator has created ex-nihilo, a universe for humans to be lived in, discovered and understood.

 

This philosophical disposition allows Christians to pursue the functional of natural and physical laws.  Other civilisations simply viewed the Earth as a gigantic organism of nature, dominated by nature pantheism, many deities, and endless cycles of birth, death and rebirth.  This animism destroys rational pursuits of the physical and theoretical since it denies reason and order.  Created beings on the other hand, will use their own mind and wills to explore, discover, and understand fixed patterns and logic.

 

Christianity rightly and rationally rejects animism and pantheism.  God, his only begotten Son, and the Holy Spirit are immanent and universal.  Other cultures can and have of course contributed to the development of science, but never in a sustained and scientific manner.  Christian scientific inquiry stretched over 700 years – an unprecedented length of time in the journey to acquire knowledge and understanding. 

 

Ancient civilisations including the Chinese, Greek, Babylonian, were unable to believe in the laws of nature or the rationality of creation.  Aristotle, in a common ancient view for instance, ascribed the circular motion of planets as an ‘affection’ for that kind of travel.  For the ancients, all natural phenomena was personal, generated by a deity or deities.  For science to succeed, phenomena had to be de-personalised and the only group in history to do this was the Christian Schoolmen or Scholastics.

 

Scholastics believed in the rationality and reasonableness of God.  Saint Anselm (11th century) for example maintained that God not only revealed himself and his moral order through Christ, but in nature itself has also shown that there exists a rational, logical universe.  God expects the human to investigate and understand this rational and physical universe.  As Saint Thomas Acquinas and many others expressed, God did not create a universe of chaos and incomprehension.  The world and our cosmos are predictable and intelligible and can only be discovered through rational inquiry and importantly, mechanical experimentation which was only developed and sustained in Catholic Europe.

 

 

Jean Buridan and many others in the 14th century developed the laws of motion (inertia) which was picked up by Descartes, Galileo and Newton.  Without the ‘Paris school’ and other Catholici universities the creation of modern physics would never have occurred.  Contrary to myth therefore, our modern ideas of science can be found in copious writings and experiments dating back to the 1300s. 

 

 

It should be noted that Descartes, Galileo, Copernicus, Newton and others took great care to ‘erase’ all references and historical actors from their notes.  Darwin, Einstein and many others have followed suit.  They believe that by effacing their progenitors they will claim credit and boost their own egotistical importance.  All they really claim is the appellations of fraud and plagiarism.  It should be noted that Darwin, Einstein and many others never performed physical experiments and are not scientists but philosophers.  Science took a wrong turn in the 19th century when philosophy and maths triumphed over reality and experimentation.  We have never recovered from that colossal wrong turn. 

The Shroud of Turin and the physical appearance of Jesus Christ

Above average in height, not grand, not imposing. The only begotten Son and a carpenter.

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The New Testament, unlike many ancient biographies, remains silent on the physical description of Jesus Christ. For the Gospel writers, it seems, His teachings and actions held far greater weight than His outward appearance.

However, as Christianity flourished amongst the Gentiles, a question arose: what did the Saviour look like? Early Church writers, from the second to the third centuries concluded that Jesus possessed “an unattractive appearance,” even seeming “unremarkable” or “rather bland.” This perspective stemmed from a literal interpretation of Isaiah’s prophecy: “He was despised and rejected by mankind, a man of suffering, and familiar with pain. Like one from whom people hide their faces He was despised, and we held Him in low esteem” (Isaiah 53:3).

Tertullian, in his treatise “On the Flesh of Christ,” summarised these early views:

“...Only the words and deeds, the teachings and virtues of Christ as a man, caused wonder. Had some peculiarity of body been observed in Him, it too would have caused astonishment. But there was nothing remarkable in His earthly flesh; it merely served to highlight the true worth of His other qualities. For they said: “Where did this Man get this wisdom and these mighty works?”' (cf. Matthew 13:54) — even those who looked with disdain upon His appearance, so lacking was His body in human grandeur, let alone heavenly splendour. Though our prophets are silent on His unattractive appearance, His own sufferings and the reproaches He endured speak of it. The sufferings, in particular, testify to His human flesh, and the reproaches, to its unattractiveness.”

Christ the Pantocrator. Russia, 18th century

Christ the Pantocrator. Russia, 18th century

However, this notion was later revised. By the fourth century, Saint Jerome noted that “the very radiance and greatness of the hidden Deity, which shone even on His human face, might attract those who looked at Him at first sight.”

“The Fairest among the sons of men”

The “Letter to Emperor Theophilus,” attributed to John of Damascus in the eighth century, portrays Jesus as having a “tall stature, arched eyebrows, beautiful eyes, long nose, wavy hair of pleasant colour, black beard, wheat-coloured face like that of His Mother, elongated fingers, and sonorous, sweet, gentle voice, magnanimous and patient.”

Late Byzantine author Nikephoros Kallistos offered in the fourteenth century a yet more detailed account:

“I will describe the appearance of our Lord, as it has come down to us from antiquity, and as far as possible in the description. His face was very beautiful. His height was seven full spans. His hair was golden, not too thick, and slightly wavy; His eyebrows were black, but not completely round. His eyes were dark and seemed to radiate a soft golden light. His nose was elongated; His beard was golden and not very long. His head hair, on the contrary, He wore quite long, because the scissors never touched them, just as no human hand ever touched them except that of His Mother... He was slightly stooped, but His body was well-proportioned. His skin colour resembled that of ripe wheat, and His face, like that of His Mother, was rather oval than round, with a slight blush; but through it shone dignity, the wisdom of soul, meekness and calmness of spirit never disturbed.”

Icon of Christ, painted according to the instructions of the venerable Paisius of Mount Athos

Icon of Christ, painted according to the instructions of the venerable Paisius of Mount Athos

Medieval Europe saw widespread circulation of the apocryphal “Letter of Lentulus,” which offered a detailed description of Jesus’ physical form:

“A man of tall stature and noble bearing, His countenance both dignified and expressive, such that whosoever looks upon Him must both love and fear Him. His hair is wavy and curling, of a shade slightly darker and most lustrous where it falls upon His shoulders, parted in two after the custom of the Nazarenes. His brow is smooth and marvellously serene; neither wrinkle nor blemish mars the beauty of His face, which is further graced by a becoming flush upon His cheeks. His nose and lips are formed with perfect propriety. He possesses a full beard, brown in colour, matching His hair, not long, but divided in twain. His eyes are clear and appear to change colour according to the light. He is awe-inspiring in His reproofs, gentle in His exhortations, a Man both loving and beloved, lively yet ever serious. No man has ever seen Him laugh, though He has been observed weeping on numerous occasions. His hands and other limbs are without blemish. His speech is measured and weighty. He is humble and gentle, the fairest among the sons of men.”

History of the Shroud of Turin

While the initial notion of Jesus' unattractiveness relied on scripture based on the literal understanding of Isaiah’s prophecies, the later ideas of His beauty likely drew inspiration from established iconographic tradition, where Jesus was typically depicted as possessing a noble and serene appearance.

The tradition of depicting Jesus with a noble and serene appearance did not solely stem from human imagination. The proliferation of iconographic imagery of Jesus Christ dates back to the fifth and sixth centuries. This period also coincides with the story of the discovery of the “Acheiropoieton” (Greek for “Not Made by Hands”) image of Jesus Christ, identified with the Shroud of Turin.

Spas Nerukotvornyy (Saviour Not Made by Hands)

Spas Nerukotvornyy (Saviour Not Made by Hands). Moscow. Third quarter of the 14th century

The Shroud depicts the figure of a middle-aged man of approximately 170 centimetres in height, possessing an elongated face, straight combed long hair, a moustache, and a beard. This physical description aligns closely with how Jesus is portrayed in most canonical Orthodox icons. Additionally, the numerous bloodstains upon the Shroud are interpreted by some as evidence that it once enveloped a man who had been scourged and crucified.

However, the authenticity of the Shroud remains a subject of ongoing debate. Some propose it formed due to moisture evaporating from the deceased's body. Others suggest that radiation or sunlight played a role. However, examinations reveal no traces of paint, eliminating the possibility of a human-made image created with pigments, either in ancient times or the Middle Ages. This strongly suggests the image is not a human creation.

This conclusion is supported by the observation that the image is more vivid in areas where the cloth was in close contact with the body, whereas it appears fainter in areas where there was a gap between the cloth and the body.

The Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin

All three Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) mention the Shroud (σινδών) in which Jesus' body was wrapped for burial. John, however, uses the term “linen cloths” (ὀθόνια).

The Shroud’s documented history begins in 1353 when French knight Geoffroi de Charny declared its possession. In 1452, it was acquired by Duke Louis I of Savoy and housed in Chambery, where it endured damage in a fire in 1532. Since 1578, it has resided in the Turin Cathedral.

The debate regarding the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin is still ongoing among academics.

A complication arose in 1988 when radiocarbon dating placed the Shroud’s origin in the 13th century. The validity of these findings has been repeatedly challenged and scientifically refuted. Notably, a 2013 study conducted by Professor G. Fanti of the University of Padua employed a combination of cutting-edge techniques — infrared and Raman spectroscopy, alongside chemical and multiparametric mechanical analysis. This study yielded results suggesting that the Shroud may, in fact, date back to the time of Jesus Christ.

The Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin

Another argument against the Shroud’s origin as a mediaeval forgery lies in the placement of the bloodstains. During the Middle Ages, the common belief was that crucifixion involved nails driven through the palms. Consequently, a forger would likely have depicted the wounds in this manner. However, the bloodstains on the Shroud reside in the wrist area, aligning with the recent understanding that during the time of Christ, nails were typically driven through the wrists, not the palms.

The Mandylion in Edessa and Constantinople

Furthermore, the tradition of the Holy Mandylion pre-dates the declaration of the Shroud’s existence by Geoffroy de Charny. This image held significant importance in the Christian East, with its first documented mention arising during the siege of Edessa in 545 AD. Church historian Evagrius describes desperate citizens using the “God-given Holy Mandylion” in their defence. This act, involving holy water sprinkled on the image and then on the rampart built by Khrosrow, enabled them to set fire to the rampart, leading to Khrosrow’s ignominious retreat three days later.

Spas Nerukotvornyy (Saviour Not Made by Hands). Icon. Novgorod, 12th century

Spas Nerukotvornyy (Saviour Not Made by Hands). Icon. Novgorod, 12th century

For four centuries, the Holy Mandylion served as a revered relic in Edessa, attracting numerous pilgrims. In 944 AD, it was transferred with great ceremony to Constantinople. There, it was placed in the palace temple of the Virgin Mary of Pharos where it remained for centuries. However, its trail fades after the city’s fall to the Crusaders in 1204 AD. It is likely that, similar to other Eastern Church relics, the Holy Mandylion ended up in the possession of Western Crusaders and was taken from Constantinople.

The Shroud of Turin and the Edessa image - same or different?

A question remains: is there a link between the Shroud of Turin and the Holy Mandylion of Edessa (Constantinople)? For a significant period, this connection was rejected. Primarily, this stemmed from the vast difference in their depictions. The Shroud portrays a complete body imprint, whereas historical descriptions and accounts suggest the Holy Mandylion solely presented an image of Jesus Christ's face.

However, a new interpretation emerged in the latter part of the 20th century, proposing that the Shroud and the Mandylion represent the same object. This theory hinges on the presence of transverse folds on the Shroud. They indicate that the Shroud was folded eight times and stored in a folded state for a long time.

Proponents of this theory argue that the Edessa Holy Mandylion could correspond to the facial region of the Shroud. When displayed to pilgrims in Edessa and later Constantinople, it is conceivable that only this section of the folded Shroud was revealed, creating the impression of a solely facial image.

Several literary sources strengthen the connection between the Shroud and the Mandylion by suggesting the presence of Christ’s actual burial Shroud, not just a facial image, in Constantinople until 1204.

Hagia Sofia by Charalampos Laskaris

Hagia Sofia by Charalampos Laskaris

Nicholas Mesarites, the sacristan of the Church of the Mother of God of Pharos, directly mentions the “grave shrouds of Christ” in 1200: “They are made of linen, a cheap, simple material, still imbued with myrrh, rising above decay, because they have enfolded the immeasurable, dead, naked, anointed after the Passion.”

Robert de Clari, in his early 13th-century work “The Conquest of Constantinople,” specifically mentions a church (Virgin of Blachernae) housing the Shroud “in which the Lord was wrapped.” This Shroud, according to de Clari, displayed a visible image of Christ every Friday: “which would rise every Friday so that the likeness of Our Lord would be visible.”

Theodore Angelos, writing to Pope Innocent III in 1205, further strengthens the claim: “The Venetians divided among themselves treasures of gold, silver, and ivory, while the French did the same with the relics of saints and the greatest relic — the Shroud, in which Our Lord Jesus Christ was wrapped after His death and before His resurrection. We know that these relics are kept by their captors in Venice, in France, and other places, and the Holy Shroud is in Athens.”

Further indicating the potential link, several sources suggest that the Edessa Mandylion depicted not just the face, but Christ's entire body.

A 10th-century Latin manuscript contains an account originating in the 8th century, mentioning the presence of a cloth in Edessa displaying “not only the face but the whole body” of Christ.

Additionally, the presence of bloodstains on the Holy Mandylion is documented in various sources. A particularly compelling piece of evidence comes from Archdeacon Gregory of Hagia Sophia in 944, notably, his discourse for the transfer of the Mandylion from Edessa to Constantinople. Gregory explicitly refers to the Holy Mandylion as a “supernatural image”:

“For it is not painted by the means with which the art of painting creates images, granting the mind the ability to grasp the original form: painting creates a complete likeness with various colours, highlighting the cheeks with a blush, the lips with bright scarlet, drawing the first down of youth with a shining black colour, the brow with a beautiful colour along with the eye; combining colours (it depicts) ears and nose, mixing colours — the hollows of the face, shading the chin with a circle of hair threads. ... But this image... is impressed only by the agony of the pre-death struggle on the life-giving face, streaming like clots of blood, and by the finger of God. They are truly beautiful colours that have created the imprint of Christ, adorned with drops flowing from His side. Both are filled with teachings: there is blood and water, there is sweat and form. Oh, the resemblance of these things! For they have come from the same. But the source of living water should also be seen in His image, and it, teaching, moistens the formative moisture of sweat, which every body emits, like a spring that gushes forth as if from vessels, moistening the tree of life.”

Archdeacon Gregory’s statement clearly mentions blood traces not only on Christ’s face but also corresponding to the wound in His side (John 19:34). This suggests that the Shroud bears an image of Christ’s entire body, not just His face.

Holy Shroud by Victor Vasnetsov

Holy Shroud by Victor Vasnetsov

A potential counter-argument arises: given the Jewish tradition of washing the deceased before burial, wouldn't this negate the presence of bloodstains on the Shroud? Researcher R. Jackson addresses this:

“Jewish law outlined four circumstances where washing the deceased was prohibited. Firstly, violent deaths with bloodshed prevented pre-burial washing. Secondly, this applied when a non-Jew inflicted the death, which aligns with Jesus’ Roman crucifixion. Thirdly, those executed for religious crimes were exempt from washing. Finally, the outcast category, encompassing those no longer considered part of the community, also faced this exemption. Therefore, fulfilling all four conditions, washing the body would have been strictly forbidden.”

The available evidence strongly suggests that the Edessa Mandylion and the Shroud of Turin are the same, albeit folded eight times. However, the possibility cannot be entirely dismissed that they are distinct objects.

The Gospel of John provides intriguing details, mentioning both “the burial cloths” and “the cloth that had been on Jesus’ head, not lying with the linen cloths but folded up in a place by itself” (John 20:7). Perhaps a separate cloth covered Christ’s face during burial, acquiring an image similar to the Shroud. In this scenario, the facial image on both cloths would be identical.

The Shroud of Turin, a fifth Gospel

The Shroud of Turin transcends a mere relic, often referred to as the “fifth Gospel.” It offers strong corroboration for elements within the Gospel’s narrative of the crucifixion, adding crucial details. The Shroud reveals evidence of at least two distinct floggings, aligning with the mentions in Matthew, Mark, and John. Contrary to popular depictions, the Shroud suggests the nails were driven through Jesus’ wrists, not his palms.

The Shroud embodies the image of the “man of sorrows and acquainted with grief” (Isaiah 53:3). We see a wounded body, hands crossed at the waist, the face bearing a majestic serenity.

Icon “Do Not Weep for Me, O Mother”

Icon “Do Not Weep for Me, O Mother”

This depiction resonates with the Russian icon, “Do Not Weep for Me, O Mother,” and the corresponding Greek iconographic type, “Extreme Humility.” Here, Christ lies partially unclothed, “as if truly laid upon the Shroud,” presented frontally with crossed hands upon his abdomen. The wounds of the crucifixion are evident, His head lies straight, and a cloth partially covers his lower body. This imagery portrays Jesus prepared for his entombment, not as a deceased figure standing upright, but as one lying down, viewed from above.

The widespread adoption of this iconographic type around the 12th century suggests a strong connection to the image once visible in the Church of the Virgin of the Pharos in Constantinople.

Source

The Scholastics and Rationalism

No Church, no universities, no scientific tradition.

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Scholasticism

 

 

Much derided by the ‘Enlighteners’ from the poorly named ‘Enlightenment’, an era largely weaponised as propaganda by protesters and atheists, the age of ‘Scholasticism’, running from the 12th to 16th centuries was absolutely essential for the development of Western civilisation.  Logical, rational deductions were at the heart of Scholasticism, and this age of inquiry bequeathed, universities, natural science, optics, physics and advanced mathematics.  Scholasticism includes work done at the universities, but also in the society at large, all of it, or a great deal of it, funded by the Church.  Hence the animus from the ‘Enlighteners’.

 

Scholasticism however defined, was at its core, as an ethos, dedicated to rationality.  Reason was viewed as the indispensable tool in theological and philosophical study.  The use of the dialectic, borrowed from Platonic dialogues was the core of how issues were assessed.  There would be a problem statement, opposite arguments were presented, followed by a resolution.  The resolution did not appeal to authority or scripture, but reason and logic.  Objections would be answered, and the author’s own ideas presented as well.  This schema was followed well into the 20th century. 

 

The earliest known Scholastic was probably Saint Anselm the archbishop of Canterbury (1033-1109).  In his Cur Deus Homo Anselm examines how God became man using logic and natural science.  He also developed a rational proof for the existence of God, known as the onto-logical argument.  For Anselm the existence of God is implied in the very definition of God, since God is ‘that than which nothing greater can be conceived.’  God cannot exist just in our minds because a greater being could be justly conceived who was real and existed in reality.  God must logically exist in reality and be beyond our comprehension in scope and perfection.

 

Another early Scholastic Peter Abelard (1079-1142) wrote Sic et Non or Yes and No C 1120.  He assembled a list of apparent contradictions from the Bible and early Church fathers, using reason to resolve the contradictions and forcing his students to logically answer the supposed discrepancies with logic.  Abelard was famous for his dedication to reason and structured logic to build up proof for the one-true-faith and the veracity of scripture.  He aligned Aristotelian logic with that of the Church and commented that he would stop being a philosopher if that meant being cut off from the truth of the Catholic Church.  

 

His student Peter Lombard (1100-1160) wrote Sentences, which next to the Bible became the central textbook for students of theology for the next 500 years.  This book is a systemic exposition of the Catholic faith, discussing everything from God’s attributes to sin, grace, the Incarnation, redemption, virtue, the sacraments, death, judgement heaven and hell. 

 

Abelard and Lombard’s work was further developed by the angelic doctor, St Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century (1225-1274).  The greatest metaphysician in history, Aquinas reconciled the logic and systems of Aristotle with that of the Church.  The Summa Theologica raised and answered thousands of questions and objections in theology and philosophy.  He proved that Aristotle could be readily harmonised with Catholic teaching.  He also offered 5 proofs for God’s existence, a must read for Catholics in any age, using reason and physics.

 

Aquinas resolutely shows that there is always an uncaused cause.  A cause that is not itself in need of a cause.  From this uncaused cause, proceed all other causes.  This first cause is of course God.  God is the one self-existing being whose existence is part of his very essence.  He depends on nothing prior to himself to exist.  Using physics and natural science, Aquinas explains how this works in the physical as well as the immaterial world. 

 

Aquinas, Lombard and Abelard all studied at the university of Paris.  In fact, the dense network of Catholic universities which would cover Europe by 1350, provided ‘rivers’ of intelligent inquiry, innovation, and scientific treatises of all varieties.  This intellectual tradition was entirely unique in world history.  The university system was dominated not by appeals to authority as in today’s schools, but by the rigour of logical dissertation and argumentation. 

 

No Catholic Church?  No university system, no scientific tradition.